2018 Kilauea eruption and Mw 6.9 Leilani Estates Earthquake: Line of sight displacement revealed by Sentinel-1 Interferometry


Bridget Smith-Konter1, Lauren Ward1, Liliane Burkhard1, Xiaohua Xu2 and David Sandwell2

1Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, USA

2Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, San Diego, USA


On April 30, 2018, along the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Pu'u 'O'o crater began to collapse, followed by increased seismicity and deformation down-rift. Observations of deflationary tilt at the summit began and small ground cracks opened near Leilani Estates on May 1-2.  On May 3,  eruptive surface fissures began inundating the community of Leilani Estates, marking the official onset of eruption by HVO. On May 4, 2018, a Mw6.9 earthquake struck the south flank of Kilauea, manifested as slip along a shallow dipping thrust fault with a hypocenter at ~2km depth. Increased seismicity began at the summit and has been followed by continued deflation. Along the rift zone, seismicity and deformation continue, with 23 fissure eruptions as of June 15.

The C-band Sentinel-1 satellites, operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), provide a 3-day coverage (ascending and descending tracks) of the 2018 Kilauea eruption. The data are available on the Sentinel Datahub.

This page is to provide near-real time line-of-sight deformation data from Sentinel-1. We'll keep presenting images for each repeat pass and update the line-of-sight data once they are available. We also include KMZ files for Google Earth. The InSAR data are processed with open source software GMTSAR and mapped using Generic Mapping Tools (GMT). The InSAR phase are filtered with a 120m Gaussian filter. The line-of-sight data are acquired by merging different swaths' phase and then unwrapped using snaphu (there is no deramping)

Displacement due to both the ongoing eruption and the earthquake on May 4, 2018, are observed. In the figures below, the left figures display line-of-sight (LOS) displacement with respect to the Sentinel radar. For ascending maps, red colors (positive) indicate motion toward the satellite (up or west) and blue colors (negative) indicate motion away from the satellite (down or east). For descending maps, red colors (positive) indicate motion again toward the satellite but now up or east, and blue colors (negative) indicate motion down or west. The right figures display a wrapped interferogram map, where each fringe represents 2.8 cm of ground displacement toward (or away) from the satellite.

Atmospheric and topographic artifacts are the likely cause of anomalous signals observed near Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, and regions southwest of Kilauea, and are also due to the developing volcanic ash contamination. We will continue to update these results as additional correction techniques are explored.

New: USGS seismicity data animations (courtesy of Tom Shea1): seismicity 3/1-5/3 10 km, seismicity 3/1- 5/3 all, seismicity 3/1-5/13 10 km
Earthquakes in Hawaii: What you should know (courtesy of HVO)

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/04/20 - 2018/05/02

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/04/23 - 2018/05/05

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/05/02 - 2018/05/08

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/05/05 - 2018/05/11

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/05/08 - 2018/05/14

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/05/11 - 2018/05/17

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/05/14 - 2018/05/20

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/05/17 - 2018/05/23

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/05/20 - 2018/05/26

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/05/23 - 2018/05/29

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/05/26 - 2018/06/01

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/05/29 - 2018/06/04

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/06/01 - 2018/06/07

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/06/04 - 2018/06/10

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/06/07 - 2018/06/13

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/06/10 - 2018/06/16

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/06/13 - 2018/06/19

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/06/16 - 2018/06/22

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/06/19 - 2018/06/25

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/06/22 - 2018/06/28

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/06/25 - 2018/07/01

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/06/28 - 2018/07/04

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/01 - 2018/07/07

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/07/04 - 2018/07/10

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/07 - 2018/07/13

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/07/10 - 2018/07/16

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/13 - 2018/07/19

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/07/16 - 2018/07/22

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/19 - 2018/07/25

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/07/22 - 2018/07/28

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/25 - 2018/07/31

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/07/28 - 2018/08/03

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/07/31 - 2018/08/06

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/08/03 - 2018/08/09

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/08/06 - 2018/08/12

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/08/09 - 2018/08/15

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/08/12 - 2018/08/18

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/08/15 - 2018/08/21

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/08/18 - 2018/08/24

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/08/21 - 2018/08/27

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/08/24 - 2018/08/30

- No data for 08/30
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/08/27 - 2018/09/02

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/08/24 - 2018/09/05

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/09/02 - 2018/09/08

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/09/05 - 2018/9/11

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/09/08 - 2018/09/14

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/09/11 - 2018/09/17

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/09/14 - 2018/09/20

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/09/17 - 2018/09/23

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/09/20 - 2018/09/26

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/09/23 - 2018/09/29

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/09/26 - 2018/10/02

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase
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Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/09/29 - 2018/10/05

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/10/02 - 2018/10/08

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Ascending: 2018/10/05 - 2018/10/11

-
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Sentinel-1 Descending: 2018/10/08 - 2018/10/14

- kmz-files for Google Earth: LOS   Phase     - LOS ascii files: los.lltenud
Big Island LOS Big Island phase
Kilauea LOS Kilauea phase

Acknowledgements:
We thank ESA for the rapid acquisition and distribution of their data. The development of the GMTSAR software, especially the processing chain for Sentinel-1, was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation through the NASA Earth Surface and Interior program (NNX16AK93G), Geoinformatics program (EAR-1347204), and EarthScope program (EAR-1147435, EAR-1424374, EAR-1614875).